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The Difference Between Benzine, Gasoline And Naphtha.

naphtha coal products

There is quite a difference between the products sold under the names mentioned. Benzine, or petroleum spirit, is one of the products obtained by the distillation of crude petroleum, by which three products are had, namely, naphtha, kerosene and residuum. The naphtha is treated with sulphuric acid to refine it, then washed with caustic soda, which treatment produces gasoline and benzine.

Gasoline is a very light, water-white spirit, of very light specific gravity, ranging from o.68o to 0.70o, weighing 51 pounds to the gallon at a temperature of 6o deg. F. It is used as fuel for gasoline stoves and lamps, and in chemical laboratories for extracting the oil from pigments, and for other special purposes. It is sold in commerce as 72 deg., 75 deg., 78 deg. gasoline, and very often by paint dealers to painters in place of benzine. While it makes a good brush cleaner, it should not be used in paint as benzine, for the reason that it is even more volatile and more inflammable.

Benzine is less volatile and has a higher specifi :c gravity ; 65 deg. benzine has a specific gravity of 0.724, while 62 deg. benzine has 0.732 and 58 deg. benzine has about 0.750, but 62 deg. benzine is what is generally used, and, weighs six pounds to the gallon at a temperature of 6o deg. F. It is a limpid, water-white liquid, which, if well deodorized, has not a disagreeable odor, and a drop placed on a sheet of white paper should evaporate, without leaving a stain, in from two to three minutes. In paint it is much to be preferred to turpentine, that has been adulterated with kerosene oil, unless used in excess. In the West benzine is usually known as naphtha, or naptha, which term is really a misnomer, because naphtha is a heavy oil, whether it be derived from petroleum or from coal tar.

Naphtha proper may be coal tar naphtha, solvent naphtha, burning naphtha, derived from the distillation of coal tar, which yields an oil known as dead oil, then a dark brown spirit, known as naphtha or light oil, with a specific gravity of o.9oo, or 7 pounds per gallon, on an average, with a characteristic coal tar odor, that is anything but agreeable. From this oil the coal tar benzols are obtained by redistillations, treatments with sulphuric acid and washings with caustic soda. The various products are sold as 5o per cent., 90 per cent. or zoo per cent. benzol, and are powerful solvents for rubber, etc. These benzols will mix readily with other solvents, and are good solvents for oils, fats, resins, and really the only effective solvents for coal tar pitch and the residuum of oil stills, and are more volatile than turpentine, without leaving any residue. For use in ordinary paints it is not practical, on account of its high cost and because the ordinary benzine will serve as well.

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