Cyclopedia of Painters & Paintings (1887) » 1887 - Cyclopedia of Painters & Paintings: Paradise to Zucchero

Reynolds

earl lord lady duke joshua portrait

REYNOLDS, Sir JOSHUA, born at Plympton, Devonshire, July 16, 1723, died in London, Feb. 23, 1792. Son of Rev. Samuel Reynolds, master of the grammar school at Plympton St. Mary, Plymouth. Went to London in 1741 as a pupil of Thomas Hud REYNOLDS son, and after less than two years' study returned home and painted many portraits at a low price. In 1746 he began practice in London, and in 1749 accompanied Commodore (afterward Lord) Keppel in the ship Centurion to the Mediterranean. At Rome, where he caught a cold while working in the Sistine Chapel, which made him deaf for the rest of his life, he remained two years ; he then visited other parts of Italy before returning to England via Paris, in October, 1752, and spent three months in Devonshire before settling in London, at first in St. Martin's Lane, where in 1753 he painted the portrait of Commodore Keppel (Collection of Lord Albemarle), which laid the foundation of his fortune. In 1768, on the establishment of the Royal Academy, he was chosen its first president, and was knighted by George III.; and in 1769, Jan. 2, he delivered his first discourse to the students of the Academy. On the death of Allan Ramsay (1784), he became principal painter in ordinary to the king. He exhibited 245 works at the Royal Academy, his contributions averaging eleven annually. He died unmarried, and was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, near Sir Christopher Wren. Reynolds painted many historical and fancy subjects, but it is as a portrait painter that he excelled all his contemporaries. Ruskin calls him the "prince of portrait painters" and "one of the seven colourists of the world," placing him with Titian, Giorgione, Correggio, Tintoretto, Veronese, and Turner. But though his pictures still have a peculiar grace and elegance from the artistic pose of the figures and the happy arrangement of accessories, many of them have lost their freshness in consequence of his use of fading colours and his experiments with fugitive mediums. Among the best preserved of his works are those in the National Gallery. A collection of Reynolds's works was exhibited in the winter of 188384 at the Grosvenor Gallery, London, including the following : Portrait of Sir Joshua (1748), Mrs. Gwatkin ; Mrs. Field (1748), E. R. Pearce, Esq.; Caricatures (1751), Duke of Devonshire ; Admiral Keppel (1753), Earl of Albemarle ; Lord Cathcart (1754), Earl Cathcart ; Lord Brownlow ; Lord Anson (1755), Earl of Lichfield ; Lady Cathcart and her Daughter (1755), Earl Cathcart ; Alderman W. Beckford (1755), Duke of Hamilton ; Hon. W. Keppel (1758), Earl of Albemarle ; Duke of Hamilton (1758), Duke of Hamilton ; Lady Caroline Fox (1758), Lady Holland ; Hon. John Byron (1759), W. Byron, Esq.; 1st Marquis of Hertford (1759), Marquis of Hertford ; Earl of Sussex (1759), Lord Donington ; Marchioness of Tavistock (1759), Earl of Albemarle ; Duchess of Gloucester (1759), Earl Waldegrave ; Lady Selina Hastings (1759), Lord Donington ; Venus and Cupid (1759), Lord Castletown ; 2 Portraits of Admiral Keppel (1860-65), Lord Albemarle ; Miss Jacobs (1761), Marquis of Hertford ; Countess Waldegrave, Earl Waldegrave (1761), Lord Carlingford ; Lord Erroll (1763), Earl of Erroll ; Miss Abington as Miss Prue (1764), Sir Charles Mills ; Master T. Lisker (1764), Lord Ribblesdale ; Mrs. Collyer as Lesbia (1764), Sir W. Knighton ; Lady Ann Stanhope (1765-66), Earl of Mesborough ; Earl of Pembroke and Son (1765), Earl of Pembroke ; Lord Borringdon (1766 ?), Earl of Morley ; Warren Hastings (1766), Lord Northwick ; Marquis of Rockingham and his Secretary, Edmund Burke (1766), Sir Frederick Leighton, P.RA.; Rev. Zachariah Mudge (1766), Mrs. Gwatkin ; 2 Portraits of Sir Joshua's Black Servant (1767 ?), Rt. Hon. George Cavendish Bentinck, and Sir George Beaumont ; Rt. Hon. Sir John Cart (1767), Lord Brownlow ; Crossing the Brook (1767), Mrs. Buchanan Riddell ; Lord Amherst (1768 ?), Hon. Paive C. Glyn ; Garrick as Kitely (1768), L. Huth, Esq.; Duchess of Devonshire (1769), Earl Spencer ; Portrait of Sir Joshua (1770), Dilettanti Society ; Mrs. Pelham (1770), Earl of Yarborough ; Lord George Seymour (1770), Hon. G. S. Conway ; Miss Palmer (1770), G. W. Currie, Esq. ; Bartolozzi (1771), Earl of Morley ; Venus chiding Cupid (1771), Earl Northbrook ; Duchess of Buccleuch and her Child (1772), Duke of Buccleuch ; Strawberry Girl (1773), Col. Copley Wray ; repetitions, Sir R. Wallace and Marquis of Lansdowne ; Nymph and Young Bacchus (1773), L Bentley ; Lady Borringdon and her Son (1773), Earl of Morley ; Joseph Baretti (1774), Lady Holland ; Mrs. Morris (1775), W. B. Beaumont, Esq.; Infant St. John (1776), Sir Watkin W. Wynn ; 2d Earl of Spencer (1776), Earl Spencer ; Lord Porchester as Infant Bacchus (1776), Earl of Carnarvon ; Young Fortune-Teller (1777 ?), Duke of Marlborough ; Countess of Powis (1777), Earl of Powis ; Two Groups of Members of Dilettanti Society (1777-79), Dilettanti Society ; Ariadne (1778), Th. Evans, Esq.; Earl of Dalkeith (1778), Duke of Buccleuch ; Lady Beaumont (1779), Sir G. Beaumont ; The Gleaners (1780), Robert Gosling, Esq. ; Lord Cavendish (1780), Duke of Devonshire ; Portrait of Sir Joshua (1780), Royal Academy ; Prince William Frederick (1780), Trinity Collection ; Miss Nesbitt as Circe (1781), Lady Stanley of Alderley ; The Three Ladies Waldegrave (1781), Lord Carlingford ; Mrs. Thrale and her Daughter (1781), Lady Ashburton ; Hon. Mrs. Beck-ford (1782 ?) ; W. Beckford, M. P. (1782), Duke of Hamilton ; Calling of Samuel (1782), Earl of Darnley ; Countess Spencer, Richard Burke (1782), Earl Spencer ; Sir Abraham Hume (1783?), Earl Brownlow ; Miss Fanny Kemble (1783), Rt. Hon. George Cavendish Bentinck ; Countess of Erroll (1783), Earl of Erroll ; Infant Academy (1783), Lord Mount Temple ; Girl with Dead Dove, Lord Houghton ; Marchioness of Thomond (1784), Mrs. Gwatkin ; Lady Spencer and Child (1784), Earl Spencer ; Muscipula (1784), Lady Holland ; Lady Ormond, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse (1784), Grosvenor House ; Adoration of the Shepherds (1785), Earl Fitzwilliam ; Duch. ess of Devonshire and her Child (1786), Duke of Devonshire ; Dr. Johnson (1786), Ch. Morrison, Esq.; Lady Cornwall (1786), Miss A. Duff Gordon ; Lady Anne Bingham (1786), Earl Spencer ; Felina (1787), Earl of Feversham ; Sir George Beaumont (1787), Sir G. Beaumont ; Miss Gwatkin as Simplicity (1788), K F. Watson, Esq.; Portrait of Sir Joshua (1788), Mrs. Gwatkin ; Guardian Angel, Portrait of Sir Joshua (1788), Duke of Leeds ; Babes in the Wood (1788), H. N. Pym, Esq.; Infant Hercules (1788), REZZONICO Lord Northwick ; do., Earl Fitzwilliam ; View from Richmond Hill (1788), Earl of Northbrook ; Death of Dido, Cimon and Iphigenia (1789), Buckingham Palace ; Lady Francis Cole (1789), Earl of Darnley ; Sheridan? (1789), H. N. Pym, Esq.; Man's Head in Profile (1773), Holy Family, The Graces (1774), Banished Lord, Lord Heathfield, Hon. William Wyndham, Infant Samuel, Lord Ligonier on Horseback, Sir A. Hume, Admiral Koppel (1780), Sir William Hamilton (1784), Age of Innocence, Captain Orme, Heads of Angels (1787), Portraits of Two Gentlemen (1788-89), Snake in the Grass, Dr. Johnson, Boswell, Portrait of Sir Joshua, George IV. as Prince of Wales, Portrait of a Lady, Robinetta, National Gallery, London ; Mother and Sick Child, 2 Portraits of Sir Joshua, Death of Cardinal Beaufort, A Sketch, Prophet Samuel, Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, Dulwich Gallery ; Snake in the Grass, Soane Museum and Baron Rothschild's Collection ; Lord Ashburton ; Earl of Bath ; Admiral Boseawen ; Earl Camden ; Sir W. Chambers ; Duke of Cumberland ; Viscount Koppel ; Marquis of Lansdowne ; Portrait of Sir Joshua. Other noted works are : Kitty Fisher (1759), Hope nursing Love, Sleeping Girl, Lansdowne House ; Nellie O'Brien, Miss Bowler, Hertford House ; Death of Cardinal Beaufort, Macbeth and Witches, Lord Leconfield, Pet-worth House ; Mrs. Barrington as St. Cecilia, Bowood ; Garrick between Tragedy and Comedy (1761), Sir W. W. Wynn ; Ugolino (1773), Earl Amherst, Knole Park ; Pick-a-Back (about 1779), Lord Monson ; Venus and Cupid, Continence of Scipio, Hercules strangling the Serpents (1788), Hermitage, St. Petersburg ; Puck (1787), Earl Fitzwilliam ; Penelope Boothby (1788), Earl of Dudley. Sir Joshua was distinguished also for literary ability. His "Discourses on Painting," which formed his annual addresses as head of the Academy, are admirably composed and excellent in their precepts. His sister, Frances Reynolds (1729-1807) painted miniatures and copied his pictures. - Leslie and Tom Taylor, Life (London, 1865) ; Northcote, Memoirs (London, 1813) ; Farington, Memoirs (London, 1819); Malone, Works of J. R (1801); Cotton, Sir J. R. and his Works (1856) ; Cunningham ; Redgrave, Century ; Ch. Blanc, C3cole anglaise ; Waagen, Art Treasures ; Quarterly Review, April, May, and July, 1866 ; Pulling, Biog. Great Artists ; Knight, Works of J. a (1798) ; Beechey, Literary Works, etc., of J. R (London, 1835) ; Stephens, English Children painted by J. R., with 15 photos.; Portfolio (1873), 66, 82.

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