Cyclopedia of Painters & Paintings (1887) » 1887 - Cyclopedia of Painters & Paintings: Jean Baptiste Deshays to Paolo Farinati

Last Supper

christ seated canvas florence museum judas louvre disciples fresco wall

LAST SUPPER, Fra Angelico, Convent of S. Marco, Florence ; fresco on wall.

By Francesco Bassano, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 5 ft. x 7 ft. Table set at an angle in a hall of Roman architecture ; St. Peter, at right of Jesus, holds a knife ; in front, Judas, with his back to the spectator ; in the angle of the table a dog and a cat quarrelling over a bone. - Madmzo.

By Banifazio, Uffizi, Florence. Christ has By Philippe de Champaign, Louvre; canvas, H. 5 ft. 2 in. x 7 ft. 8 in. In centre, Christ, seated before a table, surrounded by the disciples, raises his eyes to heaven and blesses the bread. Painted in 1648 for Abbey of Port Royal. Repetitions, with changes, Lyons Museum, and in chapel of Chamber of Peers in the Luxembourg. Engraved by Girardet in Musee francais ; Chataigner. - Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Filhol, v. PL 295 ; R6veil, vi. 376.

By Michael Coxcie, Brussels Museum ; triptych. Central panel, Last Supper ; right, SUPPER his hand on the shoulder of St. John, who leans his head upon the table, as in the fresco of Andrea del Sarto, in S. Salvi, Florence. - Larousse, iii. 703.

By Dierick Bouts, St. Peter, Louvain. This picture, an altarpiece, with wings, bears the signature of Memling, but the best critics regard it as the work of Bouts. The figures are distributed with great artistic judgment around a quadrangular table, and exhibit an admirable variety in action, character, and expression. Completed in 1467. - Kugler (Crowe), i. 108 ; Larousse, iii. 704 ; Van Even, Nederlandsche Konstenaers (Amsterdam, 1858).

Washing of Feet ; left, Christ. in Garden. Formerly in Church of St. Gudule ; placed in Museum in 1794.

By Lucas Cranach, the elder (?), Church of Wittenberg ; triptych. Centre, Last Supper, with disciples seated around a circular table ; right wing, Sacrament of Baptism, administered by Melanchthon in presence of an assistant and three sponsors ; left wing, Confession, the confessor a portrait of Bugenhagen. Predella, with Christ Crucified in centre, and on one side a pulpit with Luther preaching. - Larousse, iii. 704 ; Kugler (Crowe), i. 193 ; Schadow, Wittenberg's Denkmaler, etc. (1825).

By Daniele Crespi, Brera, Milan ; canvas, H. 10 ft 6 in. x 6 ft. 10 in. Christ has his hand on the shoulder of St. John ; two apostles in foreground ; above, two angels with a banderol.

By Gaudenzio Ferrari, S. M. della Passione, Milan ; in chapel of left transept. St. John leans upon Christ's shoulder ; in background, an open window with two • boys looking in.

By Eduard von Gebhardt, National Gallery, Berlin ; canvas, H. 6 ft. 5 in. x 9 ft. 11 in. ; signed, dated 1870. Christ seated in the centre of the table, with his left hand raised ; at his right, John inquiringly places his hands on the Saviour's arm ; on the other side, James, son of Alphreus, with his band upon his mouth, looks searchingly at the Master ; Nathanael, risen from his seat, is standing behind him ; at the left, next to John, are sitting Simon Zelotes, Andrew, and James the son of Zebedee ; in the foreground right, Matthew trying to console the youthful Thomas, who hides his face in his hands, weeping ; at the left Judas, looking down sadly ; next him the empty chair of Judas Iscariot, who has risen and, noticed only by Bartholomew, is leaving the room. - Jordan (1885), i. 35.

By Domenico Ghirlandajo, Convent of S. Marco, Florence ; fresco on wall. But little varied from an earlier fresco by him in the refectory of the Ogni Santi, Florence.

By Giotto, S. M. dell' Arena, Padua ; fresco on wall. One of same series as Last Judgment by Giotto. Another Last Supper (fresco) by Giotto in Convent of S. Croce, Florence. - C. & C., Italy, i. 271; Larousse, iii. 702.

By Hans Holbein, the younger, Basle Museum. Shows influence of Da Vinci, but the bead of Judas, which is decidedly vulgar, shows the painter's realistic tendency. A Last Supper by Holbein, the elder, part of an altarpiece completed in 1501 for the Dominicans of Frankfort, is in the Stidel Gallery, Frankfort. - Kugler (Crowe), 1. 141, 203.

By Vicente Joanes, Madrid Museum ; canvas, H. 4 ft. 2 in. x 6 ft. 3 in. Christ seated in middle before a long table, with St. Peter at his right and St. John at his left ; Judas leans on table, holding a purse in his hand. The masterpiece of the painter. Lithographed in Madrazo. Another Last Supper by Joanes in Cathedral of Valencia. - Madrazo ; Larousse, iii. 704.

By Justus of Ghent, Town Gallery, Urbino. In the middle of a church-like hall, with open doors, in front of a table, Christ stands with a plate in his left hand, bending to give the host to an apostle kneeling next to him ; behind the Saviour, three apostles kneeling; behind the first apostle, at the left, the others partly kneeling, partly about to kneel, one disciple standing with a candle in his hand, and St. John with a wine-flask, ready to fill the chalice. On the opposite side of the table, Duke Frederic of Urbino, turning to the Venetian ambassador, Caterino Zeno ; behind the Duke, two younger men, one of whom is said to be Justus of Ghent. Painted for S. Agata, Urbino, in 1470-74. - Forster, Denkmale, xi. iii. 9.

By Lambert Lombard, Brussels Museum ; dated 1531. Christ seated midway at back of the table, Judas with the purse in front ; two dogs quarrel under the table ; a basket with bread and fruit on the floor ; in background, a servant bearing two vases ; through a window, in a landscape, the city of Jerusalem. - Fetis, Cat. du Mus. royal, 130 ; E. Leroy sale (1857), 2,300 fr.

By Murillo, S. M. la Blanca, Seville ; canvas, arched, H. 8 ft. 8 in. x 8 ft. 8 in. Christ and the disciples seated at a square table, covered with a white cloth, on which is a candle, but neither dishes nor food ; a candelabrum on the wall in upper left-hand corner dimly lights the scene. If by Murillo, a very early work - Ponz, Viage, ix. 85 ; G. de Leon, i. 104 ; Curtis, 196.

By school of Perugino (?), S. Onofrio, Florence ; fresco, figures life-size. Table set in front of a colonnade ; Christ seated in middle, with SS. James the less, Philip, James the elder, Andrew, and Peter on his right, and John Evangelist, Bartholomew, Matthew, Thomas, Simon, and Thaddeus on his left ; in front, alone, Judas. Composition resembles that of Dom. Ghirlandajo, in S. Marco, Florence, but execution Peruginesque. Possibly painted by Perugino's pupils, Gerino da Pistoia, Eusebio, or Giannicola Manni. Was at one time attributed to Raphael.. Another Last Supper, in fresco, belonging also to this school, but attributed to Raphael, was recovered in 1845 from under a coat of whitewash in the refectory of the Convent of S. Onofrio, Florence. It has been engraved by Jesi. - C. & C., Italy, iii. 247 ; Jahrbuch, v. 207.

By Frans Pourbus, the younger, Louvre ; canvas, H. 9 ft. 5 in. x 12 ft. 2 in.; signed, dated 1618. The apostles seated two by two on benches on each side of the table, leaving in front an opening through which is seen Christ, with a plate, a glass, and the bread before him ; at left, Judas, standing, holds the purse behind him and protests his innocence. Formerly on high altar of S. Leu and S. Gilles, Paris. - Villot, Cat. Louvre.

By Nicolas Poussin, Louvre ; canvas, H. 10 ft. 8 in. x 8 ft. 3 in. In a hall adorned with Ionic columns, Christ, standing iu front of the table, distributes the bread to the disciples, who stand or kneel around him. Ordered in 1641 by Louis XD1 for Chapel of St. Germain-en-Laye. Engraved by P. Lombart ; Normand. - Cat. Louvre ; Landon, CEuvres ; Smith, viii. 52.• By Giulio Procaccini, L'Annunziata, Genoa. Considered the painter's masterpiece.

By Raphael, Vatican, fresco on wall of Loggia. The disciples are seated on all sides of a square table, those seen from behind turning their heads so as to show their faces. Engraved by Sisto Bada1occhio, and others. - Gruyer, Fresques de Raphael (Loges), 188 ; Larousse, iii. 704.

By Rubens, Brera, Milan ; canvas, II. 10 ft. x 6 ft. 9 in. Christ, seated with his disciples around a table, holds the bread in his hands and lifts his eyes to heaven.

By Andrea del Sarto, Convent of S. Salvi, near Florence ; fresco on wall of refectory. Composition similar to that of Leonardo da Vinci, Christ and the disciples being seated on the same side of the table ; Judas, at the right of Jesus, protests his innocence, while the rest show astonishment or indignation. - Larousse, iii. 704 ; Lavice.

By Bartolommeo Schidone, Parma Museum. Christ has his right hand raised above a large platter containing a lamb, his left upon St. John's shoulder ; two disciples are standing, the rest are seated.

By Tintoretto, S. Giorgio Maggiore, Venice ; canvas. Represented like any large supper in an Italian inn, the figures all uninteresting ; but the smoke of the lamp turns as it rises into a multitude of angels, so writhed and twisted together as to be at first scarcely distinguishable. - Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 302 ; Zanotto, 63L By Tintoretto, S. Trovaso (SS. Gervasio e Protasio), Venice ; canvas. While the rest of the apostles are intently listening to Christ's words, one of them (Judas?) is stooping to help himself to wine from a flask on the floor. So much repainted as to be hardly worth notice. A similar picture, attributed to Tintoretto, in the Louvre. Engraved by Sadeler ; Lovisa. - Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 361.

By Tintoretto, Scuola di S. Rocco, Venice ; canvas. Christ at the end of the table, which is spread in a sort of large kitchen, the host being employed at a dresser in the background ; only eleven disciples, Judas having gone out ; in front, sitting on steps, two mendicants wait for the fragments, and a dog watches earnestly the movements of the company. A most unsatisfactory picture. - Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 338.

By Titian, Escorial, Spain ; canvas ; thirteen full-length figures of life-size ; signed. Table in a vast hall, with an arched opening at each side ; Christ seated in middle, with the disciples grouped behind and around ends of the table, under which a dog is gnawing a bone ; on the floor, a vase near a shallow bowl, out of which a partridge is drinking. Finished in 1564, and sent to Philip IL; hung in the great refectory, after the top of the canvas had been cut off to make it fit the wall Greatly damaged by repainting. Probably a replica of the picture in the refectory of SS. Giovanni e Paolo, which was burned in 1571. Copy in Bridgewater House, probably by Andrea Schiavone ; small copy in Lord Overstone's Collection, London. Engraved by Cort. Vasari, ed. Mil, vii. 457 ; Ridolfi, Maraviglie, i. 268 ; C. & C., Titian, ii. 337 ; Northcote, Titian, i 349.

By Otto Vaenius, Cathedral, Antwerp, in the south transept. Christ seated in the centre of the table, around which the disciples are grouped, with his right hand raised in the act of blessing the bread and wine before him. Above are suspended two chandeliers ; in foreground, a basket of dishes, and a servant pouring out wine. - Reveil, iii. 819.

By Giorgio Vasari, formerly in Louvre ; wood, H. 3 ft. x 5 ft. Christ and the apostles seated around a table ; in front, Judas, holding a purse ; vases of gold, silver, and marble are on the floor. Formerly in S. Luigi dei Francesi, Rome. Another Last Supper (1546) by Vasari is in S. Croce, Florence. - Villot, Cat. Louvre ; Larousse, iii. 703.

By Paolo Veronese, Convent of SS. Giovanni e Pietro, Venice ; fresco on wall of refectory. Engraved by J. Saenredam.

By Leonardo da Vinci, refectory of Convent of S. M. dells Grazie, Milan ; wall-painting in oil, H. 14 ft. 10 in. x 28 ft. 3 in. Christ and the disciples seated behind a long table in a room, through the open door and windows at the back of which is seen a mountainous landscape. Disciples arranged in groups of three on each side of Christ, who occupies the middle place ; on his right, first group, John, Judas, and Peter ; second, Andrew, James the younger, and Bartholomew, who stands at the end ; on Christ's left, first group, James the elder, Thomas, with upraised finger, and Philip ; second, Matthew, Thaddeus, and Simon, who is seated at the end. Finished in 1498 ; colours mixed with a defective oil medium and faded rapidly ; repainted by Bellotti in 1726, by Mazza in 1770, and by Barozzi in 1853. Lower part of central group destroyed in 1652, when a door was cut through wall. In 1796 the refectory was made into a stable, against Napoleon's orders, and the picture much damaged by dragoons. In 1800 refectory was flooded for fifteen days. Best copy by Marco d'Oggionno, in Royal Academy, London ; others in the Louvre, in the Brera at Milan (formerly in Convent at Castellazzo di Vigentino), and at Ponte Capriasco, Switzerland. Picture best known by Raphael Morghen's engraving (1800), but it was not made from the original, as generally supposed. Morghen engraved it in Florence from a drawing made by Teodoro Matteini, who was sent to Milan for the purpose, but who undoubtedly took many details from Marco d'Oggionno's copy, in which the heads are not closely copied from the original. Bern.

(1859), i. ; Bosi, Del Cenacolo (Milan, 1810); Goethe, Abendmahl von L., xxxix.; Bugler (Eastlake), ii. 252 ; Ch. Blanc, Ecole florentine.

Subject treated also by Giambattista Tiepolo, Louvre ; Jules Elie Delaunay, Luxembourg Museum ; Bartolomeo Carducci, Madrid Museum; Annibale Carracci, Ferrara Gallery ; Andrea del Castagno, Refectory of S. Apollonia, Florence ; Benedetto Cagliari, Venice Academy ; Pablo de Cespedes, Cordova Cathedral ; Hans Holbein, elder, St. Leonard's, Augsburg : Gerard de Lairesse, Luini is said to have made a copy for Louis XIL of France, but nothing is known of it. A copy by Rubens, in his peculiar style, has been engraved by Soutman. Another engraved by Thouvenet. In 1884 the French Ministry of Fine Arts commissioned Gaillard to engrave it for 70,000 francs. Reputed studies by Leonardo are in the collection of the Grand Duchess of Weimar, in the Windsor Collection, in the Brera at Milan, in the Louvre, and in the Venice Academy ; Leonardo's memoranda concerning the arrangement of the figures, in one of his note-books in South Kensington Museum. - Vasari, ed. Mil., iv. 29 ; Delecluze, L. da Vinci (1841); ,Stendhal, Hist. de la Peinture en Italie Louvre ; Francesco Penni, Naples Museum ; Alphonse Perin, Notre-Dame de Loretta, Paris ; Hippolyte Flandrin, Saint-Germaindes-Pres, ib.; Pierre Auguste Pichon (1856); Francois Verdier, Caen Museum.

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